Fire trucks are also called fire engines, in most countries they are also used in other emergency operations. Several fire engines and experienced firefighters with fire equipment at the ideal disaster fire site are sufficient to complete the task.
But actually, fire site usually complex and changeable, a single functional type of fire engine is not enough to perform all tasks, so a variety of types of fire engines with the use of the program came into being.
First of all, the most basic modern fire engine base equipped with steel ladders, water monitors, portable fire extinguishers, self-contained respirators, protective clothing, demolition tools, first aid tools, etc. , some will also be equipped with water tanks, pumps, foam fire extinguishing equipment and other large-scale fire extinguishing equipment.General fire scene, water tank fire trucks are competent enough to complete the rescue through large-capacity water storage tanks and high-pressure water cannons or water monitors, but with the continuous progress of science and technology, single water agent for firefighting facilities have not kept up with the times.
Chemical factories cannot use water to fight the fire, should be used sand to cover the fire, high-rise buildings water tank fire trucks cannot extinguish the fire, so there is an Aerial ladder fire engine, the crash fire is also equipped with special airport rescue fire trucks, for valuable equipment, precision equipment, important cultural relics, books and archives and other places of fire, need to be more professional.
While putting out the fire need to maximize the preservation of the original items at the fire site, so there is a special carbon dioxide fire engines.
SINGLE INDEPENDENT FIREFIGHTING OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FIRE TRUCKS
1.Rapid fire fighting in urban areas
● Rapid fire fighting with fire hydrants——Pump Fire Engines
Relatively this is a simple type of fire engine, mostly used in urban areas to extinguish the fire, the use of the need to be accompanied by on-site fire hydrants or water-absorbing fire, can also be used as other fire engine water supply equipment vehicles.
● Storage of mobile water sources to quickly fight fires——Water Tank Fire Trucks
It is a standard fire vehicle for the Public Security Fire Brigade and the Specific Fire Brigade. Because the vehicle has a separate water tank, simply, it can be performed independent firefighting tasks in water-scarce areas. Of course, much more diversified in co-operation, as water supply equipment and water transport vehicles in the fire site.
2、Special Fire Site Rapid Rescue
● Rapid fire fight in a flammable liquids site——Foam Fire Engine
Foam fire truck is the necessary fire vehicles of the city's professional fire brigade, is also the mainstream fire engine, suitable for fighting flammable liquid fires, especially suitable for fighting oil fires, in petrochemical enterprises, oil terminals, airports are necessary fire engines.
Foam fire truck extinguishing the fire through the good physical properties of the foam. (relatively foam with small density, good mobility, strong continuity, strong fire resistance, poor thermal conductivity, sticky, in the extinguishing of the foam, so that it quickly covers the burning material, by isolating flammable steam, air, heat transmission, to achieve the purpose of extinguishing the fire)
● Non-water-soluble liquid rapid fire fighting – Compressed Air Foam System Fire Engine (CAFS)
With the rapid economic development, fire-fighting technology is also being updated. CAFS fire extinguishing is a new high-efficiency and low-cost fire extinguishing technique which generally be equipped in many developed countries, but it is still in the developed stage in China market.
CAFS is a mechanical air foam, compared with the low and medium multiple foam fire extinguishing performance greatly improved, It uses large foaming, good insulation, lower relative density and better fluidity to extinguish fires, it is same like the previous foam fire engine, Fire extinguishing by overlapping the closure effect, the steam effect and the cooling effect.
This fire engine is similar in range to a foam fire engine, but further effects on fire fighting in enclosed spaces are odd. It can depressing the fire, but also help to remove smoke and replace toxic gases, would be a coup on several levels.
● Effective rapid fire fighting in libraries, museums, and precision equipment locations——CO2 Fire Engine
Collections of books in the library, precious collections in the museum are a valuable asset to human. Protect these items as much as possible while fighting fires in a timely manner. In addition, there are some precision instruments that are too expensive in cost or play an important role.
So the previous fire plan wasn't enough to get the job done. Carbon dioxide fire engines comes out, Now, of course, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are also used on a large scale. Because liquid carbon dioxide doesn't burn or doesn't combustion-supporting, non-conductive and non-corrosive, when dry carbon dioxide vaporizes absorbs a lot of heat, it could rapid cooling the fire.
At the same time, there will be no damage to things other than incendiary materials, and a large amount of carbon dioxide will dilute the oxygen content, to achieve the purpose of timely fire extinguishing. Similarly, such fire engines can also serve as a general type of fire.
● Rapid fire extinguishing of electric equipment——Dry Chemical Powder Fire Engines
This type of fire engine is a supplement to the foam fire engine, it can also put out flammable liquid extinguishing, but the advanced supplement to the flammable gas, live equipment fire extinguishing, of course, can also fight the general type of fire, especially suitable for large chemical pipeline fire.
By using the volatile decomposition of inorganic salt in dry powder to interrupt the chain reaction of combustion to extinguish the fire, meanwhile, dry powder can also form a glass-like layer at high temperature, thus suffocating the fire. As large-scale as carbon dioxide applications on fire extinguishers, is one of the standing fire extinguishers.
DIVERSIFIED AND COMBINED FIRE FIGHTING
●Foam Dry Chemical Powder Twin Agent Fire Trucks
Both fire engines equipped with foam-dry powder serve as fire fields, as well as two types of fire engines, in some complex fire sites to effectively control the fire.
Can fight flammable gases, flammable liquids, organic solvents, live equipment fire, of course, can also serve as a general type of fire scene, but more used in more complex and dangerous fire scene, more in various types of chemical power plants.
●Aerial Water Tower Fire Trucks
Skyscrapers are common in modern metropolises, while basic fire engines cannot operate at high aerials, and common high-rise residential buildings and office buildings are high-risk areas of fire, for which there are a variety of types of fire trucks combination units cooperated in the disaster relief.
● Rescue of trapped people – Aerial Ladder Fire Engines
It works with a telescopic lift-and-a turntable platform and fire-fighting facilities with a retractable ladder to effectively extinguish the fire and rescue the persons safely at the location of the trapped person, and then carry out the fire quickly.
● Rapid fire suppression of high-rise equipment - Aerial Platform Fire Engine
Through the large hydraulic lifting platform with firefighters to carry out fire extinguishing, especially suitable for high-rise buildings, tall facilities, oil tanks of fire, but also to rescue trapped people, but mostly used for high-rise equipment to quickly extinguish the fire.
● High-altitude external fire-fighting - High-Altitude Jet Fire Engine
This type of combined firefighting is suitable for rapid fire suppression of upper-altitude external flames by combining the arm and turntable with firefighters for jet fighting.
SPECIAL FIRE-FIGHTING COMPOSITE CO-USE
1. Emergency response coordination
● Night firefighting electricity supply——LED Lighting Fire Engines
Equipped with fixed lift lighting towers, mobile lamps to provide lighting for night-time firefighting and rescue work, but also as a temporary power supply in the fire site.
● Rescue tool special supply ——Emergency Rescue Fire Engines
Equipped with fire operation of all kinds of fire rescue equipment, special protective equipment, fire demolition tools, fire detectors, etc. , is to undertake rescue and rescue mission tools special lying for the special fire engines.
● Timely supply of fire extinguishing materials——Water Supply and Liquid Supply Fire Engines
The Water supply truck is equipped with large-capacity water storage tanks as a backup vehicle for the supply of water to the fire site, while the liquid supply truck is equipped with foam tanks and foam pumps as a logistics vehicle for the supply of foam fluid in the fire field.
● On-site exploration and smoke evacuation——Detective Fire Truck and Smoke-out Fire Engine
The detective fire truck is responsible for the investigation of fire scene, criminal offence site and other scenes, which plays an investigation and exploration role in the fire disaster situation, and plays a great role in the follow-up disaster relief task.
The Smoke-out Fire Engine is responsible for evacuating smoke from the fire site so that firefighters can enter the building for fire suppression and rescue, and in underground buildings and dense compartments, basic fire engines are required to cooperate with smoke-filled fire engines in disaster relief.
● Coordinated Command - Communication Command Fire Engines
Equipped with radio, telephone, loudspeaker and other communications equipment, in the fire rescue truck is responsible for dispatch in command, effective arrangement of rescue, is the fire rescue commander.
2. Special Scene Combinations
●Disaster relief at the site of major fire and hazardous chemical spills——Fire Tanks
Because of its poor mobility, high cost and high fuel consumption makes fire tanks very rare, but because of its heavy armor, strong power to enter and leave the scene of major fires and some dangerous chemicals leakage site, with fire prevention, anti-riot, anti-virus, anti-contamination and other outstanding advantages, can replace ordinary fire trucks to open the way.
● Airport Special——Airfield Fire Tender
There are airport rescue pilot fire engine steam, the former has high mobility in the airport quickly arrived at the fire aircraft location and effectively control the spread of the fire.
The latter is responsible for the follow-up fire rescue and personnel rescue, because of the special conditions of the aircraft fire, the fire engine has good maneuverability and off-road performance, can be sprayed during the course of the fire, and ordinary fire engines have a significant difference.
Different types of fire engines are used in different scenes of fire rescue, and in real life is often complex and changeable, with different fire engines to complete complex rescue and disaster relief tasks is more effective and reasonable.